size=90,7 mb; 2013-02-18; Dutch; genre=Simulation; info=Are you always in 'control'?; publisher=Strafwerk.nu; 11 reviews

Last Update: Thursday, 12-Mar-20 21:15:28 UTC

Simulation genres Take Control of the Tower hack generator


Thanks, great video. What'd you think of it? I was hoping you had a second video to show it kept you entertained enough to keep playing it. Are you still playing it by any chance? Thanks again.
How did Kotaku decide on rating games on a yes/no system as opposed to a numerical system? What do you feel are the benefits to doing so? Thanks for doing the AMA, Stephen. We think review scores are silly. They don't tell you enough. What's a 7. 3 really mean and how is it different than a 7. 4? Is a game that got a 7. 4 this year even really better than a game that got a 7. 3 last year? It's madness. So we don't do them. But you know how when a friend gets a game you ask them how it is? "How's that game? Should I play it? " The idea is that the friend probably says, "Yes" or "Don't bother" or "I don't know" or "It's really buggy now" or "Leave me alone, you creep". Our review "scoring" system is designed to give you that friend-type response as an initial entry point into knowing what the reviewer thought. We also provide a review card that gives you a synopsis of the review that you can read in the time it takes to sneeze twice. If you're down for more, then we have a full review for you. The "Not Yet" was included in that system as a way to signal that, hey, this is one of those modern games that might need some patches or some proving out of its multiplayer by regular gamers before we can tell you if it's worth your time. How do you feel about the continued ban on kotaku because of the ban on gawker sites on a lot of subreddits? And how do you feel when they don't post but screenshot and copy and paste articles? I hate the bans. I wish that no community or news organization ever felt the need or had the justification to ban an outlet, to, in the case of Reddit, not even get stories that reporters toil over get a shot at being voted on. But I've come to understand over the last year that many of the subreddits who ban us don't ban Kotaku because of what Kotaku did but because of issues with sister sites in our company. Mind you, this is the same company that bankrolls a gaming news and opinion site that is growing, that is unafraid of publishers, that has awesome lawyers, and that empowers us to do original reporting around the world. There's nothing I can do about the bans other than hope that our work will be appreciated somehow, some way whether it's through subreddits or through other parts of the Internet. Actually, there's one other thing I can do. Kotaku has been around along enough to garner fans but also garner criticism. I take criticism of our site very seriously. A lot of it sticks. A lot of it influences where this site goes and what we do. So, no matter where criticism comes from, if it winds up involving what we publish, I listen and hope to use it to improve our site. As for people copying and pasting, if people like a story and want to see more like it, the best thing they can do is click on that story. The worst thing they can do is avoid doing so. That's the point. The point is for the content thieves to do their best to make sure it's more financially difficult for people to do the work that these content thieves actually like? That does nothing to encourage good work and makes it harder to do good work. That's about the dumbest, most immature and most spiteful strategy imaginable. Why the hell does Patricia still work for Kotaku? EDIT: Hot damn, thanks for the gold! Because she's an astute critic, a fine writer, a fresh voice, a smart observer of shooters, a Pokemon expert and more. You can't like the whole team, right? Just think of her as the member of the Justice League that you don't like or something. I don't know... Red Tornado? She's better than Red Tornado, though. Not sure. Anyway, that's the best I've got to offer on that. I'm happy you didn't use the gender card. People don't hate her because she's a woman, it is because she epitomizes the click-baiting that Kotaku is infamous for with her insidious, sensationalist headlines and stories. "Click-baiting"? I never understand that. That's shorthand for "stories I don't like. " Ever article should be interesting enough to get clicked on. It's short hand for misleading, sensationalist headlines. If the headline is the most interesting part of your article, you're doing it wrong. I agree. Okay, so there's the issue of the backlash against Kotaku's foray into various social justice topics in the gaming community, and the general association with Gawker. People want to see Patricia Hernandez fired, or a more critical take on Anita Sarkeesian, and I certainly remember the furor over these two articles. My question is, how are you guys handling this? Does it impact your perspectives on the gaming community, or influence the way you write your respective articles (as in, to try and avoid or contain any reader backlash)? Some folks don't want us to report or write criticism about that at all, because they'd prefer to not have those issues in their gaming coverage. Even among that crowd, there are the people who are uninterested because they care about the play of games over the content. Others simply can't tolerate social politics showing up in gaming news. Others simply disagree with some of the things we report or opinions some of our writers state. I completely understand when a reader says, "hey, why did you make a post about there being no women on stage at the PS4 event? You didn't do that for any other gaming event? And who cares? " We can't let the fact that we never covered a topic or angle before restrain us from every covering it in the future. And we can't get so tangled up in worrying about offending someone that we censor ourselves. I look at Kotkau as an outlet that has infinite space. There are stories I've been dying to get to all year that I still haven't gotten to. So when people perceive imbalance, it's sometimes because we just haven't gotten to reporting other parts of the greater story. Other times, the perception of bias or nitpicking is in the eye of the beholder. I recall a controversial piece that Patricia wrote about Far Cry 3 Blood Dragon. I thought the piece was terrific because she wrote about something that was uncomfortable, wrestled with her reaction in her own article and even featured the creators of the game disagreeing with her. It was all there on the page and it was all stated in a reasonable, non-kneejerk manner. That's the kind of criticism, whether it's about social issues or good use of shoulder buttons, that I think games deserve. I do think that there's been a lack of strong coverage of the contrarian points of view to some of the social issue stuff. But I must also say that when popular arguments against Anita Sarkeesian boil down to her just being in it for the money, it makes it harder to get past that and find the arguments that hold water. It's not like the things she's pointing out about games are fiction. I mean, have you played Ryse? Well, no, you probably haven't, but you'll see. PS4 or the Xbox One? If you can wait, wait. Neither is a must-have yet. Both are a clean break from the previous consoles, since they lack backwards compatibility. Xbox One tries to do more and I'd say doesn't do some of what it's trying as well as it should (see the inability to separately control the volume of the TV signal and games that it can display in splitscreen--you have to listen to both). But Microsoft actually has a good, diverse launch line-up. PS4 tries to do less at launch and, as a result, I'd say they do more things well. Neither has a must-own game yet. Sorry to not make it easy for you. Ultimately, what do you want? To play Titanfall and split your TV and games on one screen? Get Xbox. To effortlessly livestream and play Naughty Dog's games? PS4. Tomorrow (Fri, Nov 22) seems to be on of the biggest days in Nintendo's recent history, launching both a new Zelda and a new Mario on the same day. Rave reviews from all around keep pouring in for both titles. What do you think Nintendo needs to do next in order to maintain the momentum they've generated this month? The 3DS seems to be in pretty good shape. Hardware sales aren't quite as on fire as the DS' were and I think there's some year-on-year softness, but if you have a 3DS I think you're a pig in mud. Excellent games come out on the system monthly. In contrast, the Wii U portfolio just doesn't seem to me to be as well-managed. Nintendo quieted development on the Wii a long time ago and had a year to really impress with games that felt like they HAD to be on the Wii U. Even 3D World, which is a lot of fun, doesn't feel like it has to be on that system. In fact, these days, I'm thinking that I'd like to see Nintendo converge their hardware lines, make everything portable with some sort of output to the TV. The Wii U is begging to be portable already. Case in point. What are some gaming franchises you'd like to come back? Personally, I'd love a new game in the Strike series from the Genesis and SNES days. Nintendo doesn't do enough with Metroid. I miss Advance Wars, too. I'd like to be excited about a Fable game again. And there's this other little franchise that I miss. It's called Half-... something. I forget. It's been so long. What do you make of accusations that you're biased to one console or another? When Bill Gates calls to complain to me about that, I put Kaz Hirai on hold and get off the chair Reggie Fils-Aime gave me for my birthday to tell him that it's a damn lie. I don't know. We probably all have our sentimental favorites, but given how I get heat from every console company at some point or other every few months, I'm confident that we're doing a good job of favoring no one too much. You guys seem to break a lot of news stories. Where do most of those come from? Is it just from tips in your inbox? We get a lot of tips from our e-mail address but we also have lots of sources. It's tricky with sources. You meet someone and you have no idea how reliable their info is. So you have to check it out. Try to corroborate. Eventually, I and other reporters on the team wind up with sources who've been right and reliable for years. It's really like any other kind of reporting and it's a thrill any time we can break some news that gamers will care about. In your opinion, does Legend Of Zelda: A Link Between Two Worlds do for the 3DS what Phantom Hourglass did for the DS in terms of innovation and originality? If so, how? If not, how so? What kind of trick trap question is this? Spirit Tracks blew Phantom Hourglass away. Phantom Hourglass had that dungeon you had to keep repeating and was, I thought, fairly weak as Zeldas go. Spirit Tracks had some series-best dungeons and an immensely rewarding and mysterious sidequest system that fleshed the game out a ton if you had the patience for hauling passengers around on your train. I like A Link Between Worlds more than I liked Phantom Hourglass. It's very good. The dungeons are superb. The change to the gameplay formula--letting you "rent" and own items, letting you play most dungeons in any order--are great. And, my god, the 3D effects are awesome and are the best argument for playing with the slider halfway up. As someone who has never played a Zelda game, would I like this? Oh, how sad. Hell yeah. Link Between Worlds is really good. Play with the 3D on. Fuck, this makes me sad now:( I lost my left eye a couple years back... EDIT;( Oh my god. I am so, so sorry. You'll like the game well enough, I promise. Since brian creccente left kotaku, do you still feel that gamers see Kotaku as a blog biaised towards XBOX? I didn't know gamers felt that way when Brian was running things. Brian's a serious reporter and always tried hard not to play favorites. He's top flight. Sometimes when someone asks you for clarification of a topic or understanding when there is a misunderstanding. Was wondering why you tend to go on the defensive so quickly? Is it due to the large amount of internet trolls out there? If I have, I'm sorry. Not my intent. I'll try to avoid that in the future. Now why are you attacking me? Leave me alone! (How am I doing? ) A lot of old media companies is starting to take gaming more seriously e. g. Time Warner with adult swim games + Warner Games, Disney with their recent purchases of Tapulous, the Where's My Water team, etc. But something interesting is that they're taking a big interest with small indie devs. What do you think is the reasoning behind this and how do you think that's going to affect the other big players in the AAA league? 1) I think we're going to see some of the same growing pains you've seen with games reporting, where some people get more access and then find themselves either softening their voices or lashing back against those who've given them access until it all comes to a good balance. I love that more gameplay is more visible to more people. That's really healthy for our collective understanding and appreciation of great and terrible games. 2) AAA productions are slow-moving boats and, often enough, don't sail anywhere interesting. I'm sure that these giant media companies appreciate the creative freshness and flexibility of indie devs and probably also find them fairly cheap to work with. Now will big corporations let indie devs express themselves unfettered? I wouldn't be so sure. Reddit and neogaf believe that major news outlets are money hatted by M$. They can't all be wrong. Do you know of any major news sites that have taken money from publishers (advertising) for better reviews? I don't know about that. You do see outlets taking paid travel to go to events they cover. We're backed by a strong enough company that we don't have to do that and we don't. But even many who take paid travel work very hard, from what I've seen, to maintain distance and present honest appraisals of games. The influence you should worry about more is the subtler stuff. Can a publisher scare an outlet by pulling ads? Can a reporter's friendship with a developer squash a story that readers deserved to know about? That stuff you can only judge by paying attention to the bylines of the people whose work you read. For example, Patrick Klepek. He's squeaky clean and a terrific reporter, which is why he's earned Giant Bomb reader's trust. Why do you think Sony sent Tearaway to die (figuratively) by releasing it on the same day as SM3DW, Zelda and the Xbox One? Tearaway is brilliant. I don't know how companies decide when to put games out, but how about all of us on Vita try to help Tearaway live. It's one of the year's best games. I love it. Sony doesn't put a ton of games out for Vita overall. I'd complain more if they held Tearaway back. Vita gamers need more new stuff to play. Do you think they'll end up porting it to PS4 or PS3? I mean, the Vita ain't doing so hot... If they ported Tearaway to consoles, they'd ruin it. It depends on running on a system that has a rear touch panel and a camera pointing at your face. The Vita is perfect for it and it is perfect for the Vita. That's a Totilo Tautology, just for you. Kotaku is a pretty good site, at least in my opinion. Like everything else it has its problems but nowhere near as much problems as the rest of the Gawker network. They've got problems so large that they've almost become synonymous with bad reporting. 1) I'd probably have to pay Nick Denton a lot of Microsoft Points to free Kotaku from his grip, but why would I? Our lovable, eccentric publisher runs a diverse company, but you know what's good about that? Not only is there excellent reporting being done on our family of sites (and some silliness, too, I'll grant you), but just look at the ads on Kotaku. Plenty of non-gaming stuff. Or consider some of the stuff we've published, fully vetted by an ace legal team. We have strong backing here to do reporting that doesn't have to be held back by financial concerns or fears of being dependent on gaming ad dollars. Each site is run independently editorially. We'll link to and feature each other's stories, but 's style isn't ours, nor is io9's, Deadspin's or any of the others'. The one mandate, corny is this may sound, is to call bullshit on things and report the truth--the real truth of what the reporter or critic thinks and knows, not what they think need to be cleaned up for public consumption. This leads me to my question: Could Kotaku ever break off from Gawker and become its own independent website? 2) I covered boxing when I was in college, liked reporting, took a winding path through getting a Masters' in journalism, detoured into creating Hulk Hogan's reality show and wound up convincing the New York Times, IGN and some other outlets to let me write and report about games for them. Then MTV News wanted to hire a full-time games reporter. Then Brian Crecente stole me away to Kotaku. Question #2, and a much lighter one: How did you get your first start in journalism? What made you go from some guy to some guy who writes stuff for a website? 2) Multiplayer is such a huge part of gaming, and gaming culture. Do you feel that Kotaku covers it enough, given that you usually ignore it in your reviews and have pulled the plug on your fleeting esports coverage with Alex Mendez? No, we don't cover multiplayer enough. It's really hard to cover since it requires a degree of expertise from repeated play that I think most in the gaming media world don't have time to devote. I'd like to get better at it, but it's tough. Alex was doing some cool work, but our schedules weren't syncing up enough to keep doing something regular. He's someone worth following: Link to What do you know about Made In Japan PS4s? Any chance Kotaku will receive one from Europe? How was the build quality of both the PS4 and Xbox One? Which felt more premium? I don't know anything about variations in PS4 models. The Xbox 360 is a heavier, beefier unit, which I guess makes it feel more solid. The PS4 is disarmingly skinny. Both have survived multiple trips in my backpack, back and forth from home to work. "or when there's something that the masses fall in love with (Wii Sports, Wii Fit, Brain Age)" What title do you think the PlayStation needs to capture the masses? Will the new uncharted be enough? Or maybe a new IP entirely? Gran Turismo usually helps, but that's coming to PS3, not PS4. Maybe something new? I'm not clear about what Sony has on the horizon other than The Order, Infamous and Uncharted. Would the wiiU have done better with a better launch line up? A Zelda title specifically? By the time a new Zelda title comes our on wiiu, they may stop making it. I don't think Zeldas are as big a deal as they used to be. Skyward Sword was a cool game and did well, but it didn't do Skyrim numbers. As I said elsewhere in this AMA, lately I've been in the mood for Nintendo to converge their lines and just make handhelds that can also output to TVs. The Wii U is practically that already and the 3DS is such a killer system that I'd love to see it all become one. They could call it the Nintendo One! Which game (for either next-gen console) are you most excited for? Trick question. We all know there are three next-gen consoles. Do you get payed for your job or is it just something you do in your free time? How did you get to be on the kotaku team? I get paid. In money! It's a full-time job, believe it or not, complete with health benefits for full-time staff. If you join the team then you too can put up with me while writing three, five, eight articles a day, reviewing games at ungodly hours, and living in a cool world where you get to play the next Zelda a month before most everyone else. We hire great critics and reporters and some talented video folks, too. You apply when we're hiring. We're not hiring right now. (We were last summer) Do you feel like the delay of Watch Dogs and Drive Club made the Sony launch not as successful as it would have? Or do you think it would not have done any better? Also, did the delays come as a surprise for you? They sold a million consoles in a day, right? So they did ok! Watch Dogs was beginning to raise eyebrows, because Ubi kept showing the same demo. The one I saw in May was the one they showed me again in September or October. And GTA V was so impressive that I assumed it shook that team up a bit. Drive Club wasn't really on my radar, but I was surprised given that racing games seem relatively simple to nail for console launches and that studio had been working on that game for a bit. What do you think is the best article or review that Kotaku's put out this year? If you could change one thing in the game industry, what would it be? The one I think I did the best job on this year was: Link to Something to change? Hmm. Gaming still feels too much like a secret to me. The more people share their experiences, talking about gaming, make it less of a secret hobby, the better. The prouder gamers are and the more willing they are to talk about what they think is great or awful about games without being defensive and acting like games are under siege from the masses, the better. What is your opinion on updating reviews, and given the mishaps with sites reviewing games under PR experiences that are drastically different than the consumer experience, is it time for sites to place the credibility of their voice over being first to press? As for PR-supervised reviews, I disagree with some of the conventional online wisdom. The idea, I guess, is that review events where the game reviewer binge-plays through a game while a PR person or publisher rep sits nearby is worse and more ethically compromised a situation than a reviewer reviewing a game in the office at home. Could be. May be. We don't go to review events, because the binge-playing part is problematic, as is the idea of having to spend our outlets' money to send a reviewer somewhere when it's cheaper for the publisher to send us the game. That said, any reviewer who is cowed by the presence of people who are working on the game needs to hang it up. You can assess a game if you're being supervised, sure. In fact, I sometimes contact game creators while I'm reviewing their games to ask questions about the game so I can better understand what's in the game and what the intent was. That leads to a more informed, richer review. I know some reviewers would never do that, but I find value in learning more about a game as I play iy. I guess I do have a question, do you know of any inside scoop on the status of Half Life 3? is this a myth...? At this point, they've got to be going right to Half-Life 4, right? No inside scoop on that one, sorry. Wish I did. Hey, if YOU have a Half-Life 3 scoop, send to. We'll love you for it. What are your thoughts on PS4 not having DLNA support? I don't use consoles as media centers, so I have no personal take. This and the MP3 thing seem like things they can add after. One of the great things about PlayStation and Xbox releasing head to head is that competition ensures that they'll both keep trying to improve. Next thing you know, Sony will allow you to turn off the light in the DualShock 4. I watched a story about a year and a half ago("Tonight with Brian Williams'') about companies being known for releasing information and posting stories without confirming it there was legit sources just to be the first to release the information and Kotaku was one the named sites along with gizmodo. What truth is there to it? We reach out for comment about stories before we publish them. Our reporters are expected to note that in our stories. The more volatile a story, the more important it is to make sure that the other side of the story has had their say. But as for posting things that just might not be true? If we think something is false, we don't publish. If we're not sure but feel it's important to put out there, we are transparent about what we know and what we don't. The worst thing an outlet can do is lie to its readers or mislead them. We'll never do that. Where do you see games going in the future? More towards a nintendo path (changing the way we play games) or microsoft/sony (upgrading/creating more powerful consoles)? Shorter, more social, less "expensive" to make. Indie devs are pushing back hard against the idea that the games that matter most are the ones that have grand stories and photorealistic graphics. God bless them for that. But as some games get shorter, I see open-world gaming becoming an ever more popular genre. It makes sense for developers, publishers and players for there to be a massive game world that can be populated with more and more content as the weeks and months go by. I wonder if the campaigns in big multiplayer FPS games will stick around. If Titanfall's a hit without one, we might see some major rethinking! What game or serise would you like to see revamped on next gen? For me I think we have VERY few hack and slash rpgs around, other then Diablo and torchlight I can't think of any. I miss games like gauntlet staying up all night with friends. As much as I love the series, Assassin's Creed could use a re-think. A gamer can only climb so many churches and towers to survey the land around them. I think Black Flag is personally my favorite out the lot of them. Still suffers from relative at times tho, follow X bad guy(or ship), kill bad guy for key etc etc. The Internet gives more people voice, which is good, but also gives people more courage to be nasty to each other. And yet, look at this AMA. There are folks on Reddit who loathe Kotaku and this AMA could have been a disaster of negativity. But I approached it with a positive mindset, as did the people asking questions. Happy exchanges are possible! What game (if there is any one single game) had the biggest impact on you? A game didn't make me want to get into reporting. I love finding things out and telling people about them, which, at its most basic is what journalism is. What made you decide "I want to do games journalism"? My favorite game is Majora's Mask. What's your favourite colour? I'm a fan of blue, so much so that I'd love to see a sequel. What is it like working for Kotaku? What are some the high- and low-points of your job? Busy! There are a ton of stories to write. Tons of games to play. A chunk of our team works out of our New York City office, but the rest are spread around the world. The work day can feel neverending, but being able to talk to game creators, play games and tell gamers about them--while also sharing some of our non-gaming interests with folks, too--makes the job a lot of fun. Opinions on the Wii U in comparison to the new next gen consoles? It has more good games than the Xbox One and PS4 do, but that advantage probably won't hold. All three platforms feel pretty barren still and I'm not that excited about Wii U's next-year line-up. Mario Kart and Smash reek too much of been-there/played-that for me. My Nintendo fun still happens more on 3DS. Booo, get off the stage! Mario kart and Smash are going to be totally awesome. Bah. Yarn Yoshi's where it's at. Tearaway and Ys Memories of Celecta or 3D World and The Wonderful 101? I never played a Ys. I'm tossing this one to Jason Schreier. Jason? Game of the year 2013: Which game deserves it? GTA V, Last of Us, Papers Please, and Half Life 3 were all pretty awesome this year. But let's also hear it for games that won't get GOTY but were damn good: Puppeteer, Tearaway, Luigi's Mansion, Fire Emblem Awakening, Gunpoint? And so many more. Half life 3? You didn't pick up a copy of Half-Life 3 this year? What kind of gamer are you? What kind of strategies do you and your staff use to manage the hundreds of comments each article gets, especially in regards to comments that are hateful or just plain unfriendly? Our tech people helpfully reinvent our commenting system every few months, so... um... well... We do have a way to elevate some commenter accounts and let those accounts' comments appear by default. We try to engage with readers, since I agree with Gawker Media boss Nick Denton that readers sometimes have as interesting things to say as our writers do. This year, we also took steps to push back against the kind of hateful comments you see in so many parts of the Internet. Anyone who sees something wretched in our comments is encouraged to e-mail. I have no time for attacks on readers and writers and I'm intolerant of intolerance. You guys cover some indiedevs and indiegames on Kotaku. How do you guys find the indiegames? PAXes are swarming with them, but they also hit us up a lot. In fact, we probably only cover a fifth, if that, of the indie games we're contacted about. It's tough to keep up. So many games! What do you think is the biggest selling point of new consoles and if it is commonly ignored by reviewers, why do you feel that it is ignored? Hmm. PS4 is surprisingly portable. Xbox One's ability to power up or down by voice has probably earned me 15 seconds more of my life to do other things every day. My favorite surprise on these two machines right now is the Real Name system on PS4. I was expecting to like it, but I just hadn't experienced anything like it with TV gaming before. I really enjoy feeling like the gamers I'm connected to are real people. The more communal the systems make gaming feel--even if they still allow me to shut people out and play a solo game--the more enjoyable I think they'll be. PS4 has the edge on Xbox One with that right now. But Xbox One isn't far behind. And, you know, there's a warmth to MiiVerse that makes owning a Wii U feel pretty good! Do reviewers not talk about that? Probably not that much, because they're talking about games and how the controller feels. Can't begrudge them that. Do you think the Xbox one will improve over time? I have heard that the Dev tools or ESRAM is buggy or something like that and thats why the Xbox one is having lower resolutions on some games. Every console improves over time in that devs make better and better games for them. I don't expect them to change the hardware in a way that'd make year-one games not work on it, and I don't know how real the promise of expanding computational ability through the cloud is. I can't imagine it being central to a game, but who knows. Microsoft reinvented the 360 with major firmware updates, and I think they could do that to improve services if they want to. Right now, I think they need to fill in some gaps, but I don't see them needing to do anything that dire. If you had to help choose who would direct a zelda movie who would you choose to do it and why? No one. I seldom like things I enjoy in one medium transferred into another. I love comics, for example, and barely care about comic book movies. Which next gen console has the best original titles? Right now? Between PS4 and Xbox One? With Sony having, what, three? Xbox, I guess, thanks to having more variety. Resogun might be my favorite across the two machines. Do you feel that sports games have become very one dimensional and don't focus enough on the actual player experience? I don't play them that often. We've got Owen Good on staff for that. He's the best sports gaming reporting around. Sorry, I have to punt on this. That was not a pun. (Or was it? ).
Everyone has AIR INDIA here? Because they are all Indian.

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So it's always a guarantee that you'll be more than satisfied also, on every considerable sale I do, I always give some freebies free of charge, be it pokémon or the rarest items =) visit and i'm right there almost 24/7 =) (ALL the services below apply both to XY and ORAS, including ALL Megastones) Pokémon editing Pokémon creation Legit Eggs with your OT and SID (guaranteed shiny) Shinifying IV's and EV's Movelist OT's and SID And pretty much everything else;) Price: 1€ per regular pokémon 1, 5€ per created pokémon/egg or edit services 1, 5€ per Guaranteed Shiny egg Items (including MEGASTONES) 0. 50€, free with every pokémon bought Even though all the prices are set in EUR, any currency can be used as paypal converts it automatically =) Christmas Discount packs 7 pokémon = +2 for free 12 pokémon = +4 for free (or one event pokémon from the EVENT list below) 20 pokémon = +7 for free (or 3 event pokémon from the EVENT list below) If any other amount of pokémon, place your offer and we'll see =) (for Nintendo tournaments, the cost will be 2€ each as it involves a LOT of work genning the necessary memories for the hack checks to pass validation on it) Don't believe anyone who says they sell usable pokémon on tournaments unless they prove they can edit the memories exactly like the originals, or you'll be banned from the tournament) Template for creating/editing Pokemon, nickname and gender Shiny: (Yes/No) Level: Nature: item: Ability: Ball: IV's: EV's: Moves OT, trainer ID and Secret ID (please consult me if you don't know this one) Please make sure you put all the desired traits to be added. Also, please make all the moves you request are legal for the pokémon in question, or ask me so I can check them for you. If the pokémon contains illegal moves, the trade will be blocked and we will need to re-do it again. This also counts for moves exclusive to previous generations only obtainable through transfer =) If any of them are missing and need to be added after the trade was made, they will be considered another pokémon edit and charged accordingly;) SPECIAL DISCOUNT PACKS available Legendary Pack 1 - 4€ -Articuno -Zapdos -Moltres -Mewtwo -Mew Legendary Pack 2 - 5€ -Raikou -Entei -Suicune -Lugia -Ho-oh -Celebi Legendary Pack 3 - 6€ -Latias -Latios -Kyogre -Groudon -Rayquaza -Jirachi -Deoxyx Legendary Pack 4 - 11€ -Mesprit, Azelf and Uxie -Dialga, Palkia, Giratina -Cresselia and Darkrai -Phione, Manaphy -Heatran, Regigias, Shaymin -Arceus Legendary Pack 5 - 10€ -Victini -Cobalion, Terrakion and Virizion -Tornadus, Thundurus and Landorus -Zekrom, Reshiram and Kyurem -Meloetta -Genesect Legendary Pack 6 - 4€ -Xerneas and Yveltal -Zygarde -Diancie ALL Legendaries From GEN1 to GEN5 22€ (48 pokémon) ALL Legendaries From GEN1 to GEN6 28€ (52 pokémon) Starter Packs - 2. 80€ each / 15€ for all -Gen 1 - Bulbasaur, Charmander, Squirtle -Gen 2 - Chikorita, Cyndaquil, Totodile -Gen 3 - Treecko, Torchic, Mudkip -Gen 4 - Turtwig, Chimchar, Piplup -Gen 5 - Snivy, Tepig, Oshawott -Gen 6 - Chespin, Fennekin, Froakie (Any other pack is also doable, so just ask away;)) I have a TON more of packs to put in here, but due to a big number of requests, I've been out of time to assemble them properly here, so please feel free to ask for any pack for future discounts and i'll look into it =) all of them have 6IV's All prices are for the standard versions of the pokémon described (no edits and pokémon level is as if you caught them legally) Only gender can be swapped by the price above =) Natures, IV's, EV's and everything else editable adding 1€ per pack. All of them Hoenn/Kalos Born (except Mew(Emerald) and Arceus since they are unobtainable/tradeable normally in gen 6 so far) LEGIT EVENTS, 2€ each (fully editable without losing legitimacy) World Hobby Fair '15 Shiny Rayquaza Contrary Serperior Shell Armor Samurott Reckless Emboar Christmas Event Jirachi Torchic Megastone Event Pokéball Vivillon JPN pokémon movie Diancie Mythical Pokémon Diancie Corocoro Charizard X and Y Haloween Shiny Gengar Haloween Pumpkaboo Shiny Jirachi Event WORLD14 Aegislash Movie Darkrai Wishing Star Jirachi Scrap Pokémon Shaymin Scrap Pokémon Keldeo Scrap Pokémon Victini Birthday Events ( Eevee, Flareon, Jolteon, Vaporeon, Umbreon, Espeon, Glaceon, Leafeon, Sylveon, Pikachu. All with Celebrate) Mega Tokyo Pokemon Center Shiny Charizard JumpFesta 2015 Linoone (with Extremespeed) Walmart Winter2013 Scizor sold out Walmart Winter2013 Garchomp sold out GAME Magmar 2014 Fancy Pattern Vivillon Super Tough Heracross Super Tough Pinsir Champion Se Jun Park's Pachirisu PIKACHU PACIFICO PIKACHU COSMO WORLD PIKACHU LANDMARK TOWER PIKACHU SEA PARKS PIKACHU RED BRICK WAREHOUSE And more... All the stats are fully editable according to your needs (as long as it doesn't turn them illegal as events =)) all the events are cloned from legit ones I have and they cannot be shinified/unshinified (that's coded on the event itself as they are 100% legit) Just place your request;) IMPORTANT: I'n my opinion, it's not a good policy to keep you guys waiting for days to get your requests, So I ALWAYS do it right as soon as the request is received. It usually takes no more than 15 to 20 minutes (depending on the requests). Unless of course, something out of my control happens and prevents me from doing it or if i'm sleeping... yes, this can be exhausting, ahah You can also check for references on: and This applies for all versions of 6gen XY and ORAS I can guarantee you'll be more than happy;) WHY BUY FROM ME? Well, I could put a lot of things here to discredit other people, but i'm just gonna focus on myself =) I'm available almost 24/7 here and on facebook. I have a 100% positive feedback with LOTS of recomendations you can check on the links above =) When the request is placed and I see it. I deal with it RIGHT AWAY with no delays whatsoever, all my customers can confirm the quickness of the service I live for politeness and I treat every customer like a real person they are, and not like "paying robots" like i've seen around here sometimes Other than that, i'll let you take your own conclusions =) Contact me via e-mail for more info if needed or if I don't reply on Reddit right away FC: 0190 - 0391 - 8385 - IGN Ricardo All of the pokémons are legit for internet trade and tournament use (needs to be requested due to perfect programming needing to be done specifically for that) All payments are done via Paypal secure payment ONLY when the order is ready to be sent, I don't accept any money until i'm finished, you can confirm with any of my customers. The payment is sent using the option Send money - sending for friends or family, Proof of creation is provided if requested =) The rest of the payment details will be sent when my work is done, so please wait until then =) Cheers y'all and happy gaming =).

If you don't like the video, you truly don't have to watch. You also don't need to be rude. Just click on another one and move along. I stop watching after i saw the TOP 5. i was like WTH #5 seriously, UM NO. that would of made my #100 SMH. Updated: September 04, 2019 More informations License: Free Version: 3. 0 File size: 47 MB Publish date: March 12, 2019 Minimum OS Android 4. 0+ (Ice Cream Sandwich) Category Android Casual Games Game name About Take Control of the Tower game Table of contents CloudApks's Review What's New Description User's Reviews Instruction for installing FAQ CloudApks's review Take Control of the Tower game is a free Android Casual game, has been published by on March 12, 2019. Take Control of the Tower 3. 0 is latest version of Take Control of the Tower game updated by on September 04, 2019. On this page you can find Take Control of the Tower apk details, game permissions, previous versions, installing instruction as well as usefull reviews from verified users. Take Control of the Tower game apk we provide on this webiste is original and unmodified, no viruses or malware, no additional costs. If there are any problems about downloading, installing this game apk, please let us know. What's New (Latest updates) Dear Controllers, this will be the last update for 'Take Control of the Tower'. We thank you for the support over the years, good reviews and the many hours you have played. Stay in control! The Description Do you want to know what it's like to be an air traffic controller? In Take Control of the Tower you have the full control over the airspace. At a blazing pace you decide what the departure- and approach paths are. Do that for more and more aircrafts along the game. Can you handle the pressure and stay 'in control'? Take Control of the Tower, a game of Dutch Air Traffic Control (LVNL). Ratings and Reviews 3. 8 out of 5 11K+ Ratings 5 ★ (5, 494) 4 ★ (2, 073) 3 ★ (1, 424) 2 ★ (800) 1 ★ (1, 548) (*) is required 5 ★: Exilent very nice game 5 ★: very interesting and brain teasing game 3 ★: Would be great to just have a freeplay mode that only ended if you crash 2 planes together. Could have busy and quiet times like a real airport 5 ★: pkease add more levels.... Excellent and fantastic game i finish all levels. Please add more levels and airports... Well done guys... We are all waiting for update. We are uninstall until. Loved game.... 1 ★: Previously it was working fine. But now the controls won't working and it sucks. Fix the bugs ASAP 4 ★: Cool and challenging free game! Would be nice to see some more levels and challenges like bad weather for example. An altitude feature would also be something to make it more realistic. Big minus is the entrance of aircrafts. They should be announced and this would avoid some frustrating crashes at the screen edge with no time to react. 4 ★: It's of course very different from the real life thing. But same thinking. And basicly same conflicts. Pity all the planes got the same speed though. 4 ★: Your plane spawn point sometime too close to the other plane spawn point or to the helicopter spawn point, which make the a little time to react and I usually don't look at the edge of my screen 5 ★: Love it. The game is fast paced, requires planning and timing. The graphics are neat and I especially love the radio alerts when a plain is landing, makes you feel like you're actually in a control tower. 4 ★: It's a dynamic game that forces you to be vigilant, fast and exercises yourmind. Much like chess 5 ★: It is so fun but there was 1 glitch:when I was on the bird one there was 5planes and suddenly there was a crash with the plane's but they were alllanded 5 ★: Leuke oefening en uitdagend genoeg, althans, het laatste level heb ik nogniet een uur vol kunnen houden. 5 ★: But I want to see from tower the n I love a much..... 5 ★: Its a very great game and so fun! The best airplane game 😍👌✌✈✈ 5 ★: This type of games are very very rare keep it up excellent game Instruction for installing Take Control of the Tower game apk on Android devices Step 1: Download Take Control of the Tower game apk on this page, save it to easy-to-find location. Step 2: Make sure that third-party applications are allowed on your device. Go to Menu > Settings > Security and check Unknown Sources to allow your device to install applications from sources other than the Google Play Store. Step 2: Open Downloads on your device by going to My Files or Files, tap the APK file you downloaded (), tap Install when prompted, this game will be installed on your device. Note: Detailed steps may be varies with device. This apk file can also be installed on other devices like Windows, PC, Mac, Blackberry,... Feel free to contact us if you have any questions. FAQ Q: What is an APK File? A: An Android Package Kit (APK for short) is the package file format used by the Android operating system for distribution and installation of mobile applications. Just like Windows (PC) systems use an file for installing software, Android does the same. Q: Why can guarantee APK 100% safe? A: Whenever someone wants to download an APK file from, we'll check the corresponding APK file on Google Play and allow user download it directly (of course, we'll cache it on our server). If the APK file does not exist on Google Play, we'll search it in our cache. Q: If I install an APK from, will I be able to update the app from the Play Store? A: Yes, absolutely. The Play Store installs APKs it downloads from Google's servers, and sideloading from a site like goes through a very similar process, except you're the one performing the downloading and initiating the installation (sideloading). As soon as the Play Store finds a version of the app newer than the one you've sideloaded, it will commence an update. Q: What are Android Application permissions? A: Applications require access to certain systems within your device. When you install an application, you are notified of all of the permissions required to run that application. Game Permissions Take Control of the Tower game apk 3. 0 apk requires following permissions: Allows applications to open network sockets. Allows applications to access information about networks. Allows applications to access information about Wi-Fi networks. Allows an application to read from external storage. Allows an application to write to external storage. Previous versions Take Control of the Tower 3. 0: Published on: March 12, 2019 File size: 47 MB Download Apk Take Control of the Tower 3. 0: Published on: July 02, 2019 File size: 45. 7 MB Download Apk Take Control of the Tower 3. 0: Published on: March 06, 2019 File size: 47 MB Download Apk Take Control of the Tower 3. 0: Published on: March 12, 2019 File size: 45. 8 MB Download Apk Take Control of the Tower 2. 9: Published on: February 21, 2019 File size: 47. 7 MB Download Apk Take Control of the Tower 2. 9: Published on: March 01, 2019 File size: 46. 5 MB Download Apk.

The interface looks overly complex. I am really liking this game ever since I figured out how to assign taxiways. I am still confused about how the penalty points are awarded. I have not had any on ground collisions but somehow the midair collisions occur. I guess I will have to keep a closer eye on aircraft approaching the runways.


Pilot on Number 3 clearly had no preparation for an emergency which is why he simply panicked. Terrible. YouTube. How do you know via a c b etc where to get map i understand put via. So the Cessna was intercepted by an F15 but the picture is an F16. To some comment below, you can intercept a 152 or 172 with an F15. There are circling procedures. You want them to intercept with a Sopwith Camel. 6:13 - hmm if only there was a word with French origins to simplify this radio transmission...





Bill Pay What is Bill Pay? Is there a cost to use Bill Pay? Who can I pay? Is Bill Pay secure? Can I see how Bill Pay works before I sign up? How do I enroll in Bill Pay? Once enrolled how do I begin paying bills? How are Bill Pay payments delivered? How long does it take before my payment is received? Will overdraft protection work with Bill Pay? What is Rush Payment? Can I access and make payments with Bill Pay from my Mobile Banking? E-Bill What is E-Bill? How do E-Bills work? Will I still receive paper invoices when I have E-Bill? How will I know if E-Bill is available for a payee? How do I know when I have received an E-Bill? 1. What is Bill Pay? Bill Pay is a service that allows you to pay virtually any person or company through your Internet Banking or mobile banking account. You determine who you want to pay, when you want to make the payment, and which account you want the payment to come from. It�s safe, secure and easy to use. Return to Top 2. Is There a cost to use Bill Pay? There is no cost to use our consumer Bill Pay. There are fees for using the Rush Payment, Donation and Gift Check options. * 3. Who can I pay? You can pay virtually any business or individual with a mailing address within the United States and Puerto Rico. For example, you can pay utilities, cable bills, credit cards, or individuals such as a landlord, babysitter, or a relative. You can also send personalized gift checks for birthdays, wedding gifts, etc. as well as make donations to charities. * Finally, for some Payees you will have the ability to make Rush Payments with expedited delivery. * Please note: Making tax payments (such as federal, state and local), court-directed payments (such as alimony and child support) or any other government-related entities using Bill Pay is not recommended. 4. Is Bill Pay secure? Paying bills online is one of the safest ways to pay your bills. Bill Pay helps guard against identity theft from lost or stolen checkbooks, bills, and statements. It also increases your privacy because only you can access your account information, account numbers, and payment history. As a result, you maintain tighter control of your account with real time access to your payment activity. 5. Can I see how Bill Pay works before I sign up? Learn more by viewing our Bill Pay demonstration here. 6. How do I enroll in Bill Pay? You must be enrolled in Internet Banking to use Bill Pay. To enroll now, click on Internet Banking Application located in the Internet Banking Login box. Once enrolled in Internet Banking you can begin using Bill Pay in three easy steps: Access and log into your Internet Banking account. Click on the Bill Pay tab to access the enrollment form. Complete the enrollment form and click submit. 7. Once enrolled how do I begin paying bills? After you have enrolled (see above) you can make a payment in four easy steps: Grab your bill and log into your Internet Banking account. Click on the "Bill Pay" tab. Click the "Add a Payee" button on your dashboard. Enter the amount you want paid and make your payment. IMPORTANT: If you pay bills from more than one account, please review which account has been listed as your default account prior to initiating any bill payments after our recent system upgrade. 8. How are Bill Pay payments delivered? Payments are sent one of two ways: electronically or by paper checks. The type of payment will show under the name of the Payee on your dashboard. The majority of payments are delivered electronically. Your payment information, such as your account number, is sent via secure transmission. All other payments are made by paper checks that are mailed via the U. S. Postal Service. 9. How long does it take before my payment is received? Generally, your payment is received within 2 to 7 days, depending on whether or not it is sent electronically or via check. An approximate delivery date is listed under the Payment Date. 10. Will overdraft protection work with Bill Pay? Yes. Overdraft protection will cover payments made with Bill Pay, both electronically and by check. 11. What is Rush Payment? Using the Rush Payment option, you can send payments, by check, for Next Day or Second Day delivery or electronically if available. There are added charges associated with this option. * Many of your payees are eligible for Rush Payments, except for Government service charges (property taxes, traffic tickets, child support, etc. ). Some merchants have daily cutoff times for posting transactions and payments. Merchant cutoff times range throughout the day. Rush Payments must be scheduled prior to 4:00 PM. 12. Can I access and make payments with Bill Pay from my Mobile Banking? Yes. If you are signed up for Mobile Banking and Bill Pay, you will have a Bill Pay tab or icon when you log in to your Mobile Banking app. 1. What is E-Bill? E-Bill is a feature that allows you to receive and pay electronic summary versions of paper bills directly from your Bill Pay account. Learn more by viewing our E-Bill demonstration here. 2. How do E-Bills work? E-Bills are delivered directly to your Bill Pay account. Once you set up an individual E-Bill for a company you do business with, an E-Bill comes directly from that payee to your account. Examples of businesses that offer E-Bills are cable service providers, phone service providers, utility providers, and credit card companies. 3. Will I still receive paper invoices when I have E-Bill? You will continue to receive paper invoices as well as E-Bills unless you request that the payee stop sending them. 4. How will I know if E-Bill is available for a payee? To determine if a payee offers E-Bill, you can check to see if there is a �Set up eBill� link next to their listing on your Bill Pay dashboard. 5. How do I know when I have received an E-Bill? You can sign up to receive an electronic notice to alert you when an E-Bill has been delivered to your account. You can receive these notices in the form of emails or text alerts to provide an extra reminder when a payment is due. *The following fees apply: $2. 99 for gift checks; $1. 99 for donation checks; $19. 95 for Next Business Day Rush Payments and $14. 95 for Second Business Day Rush Payments.

How to Pay Online Pay online using your checking account from your My Account profile. Bank Pay from MyCheckFree is a convenient way to view and pay your bill online at your bank site. Payment with a credit or debit card is not available if you are a Texas customer. How to Pay on the Mobile App Register for My Account and pay your bill on our convenient mobile app using your checking account. How to Pay by Phone Our automated phone system is a secure, hassle-free, cost-free way to pay your energy bill. Call 800-895-4999 to make a one-time payment using your checking/savings account. Please be prepared with the following information: Your complete Xcel Energy account number You'll need the routing transit number (identifies your bank, credit union, or financial institution) as well as your checking or savings account number How to Pay in Person Visit any of our convenient Pay Stations to pay your energy bill in person. Bring your account number or your bill stub You will need to pay a $1. 50 transaction fee for each bill paid You may pay using cash or money order If you have more than one bill, you can pay them all with a single money order Find a Pay Station See pay station map How to Pay by Mail Send your payment, along with the payment stub from your monthly bill, to: Xcel Energy P. O. Box 9477 Minneapolis, MN 55484-9477 We include a pre-addressed return envelope with your monthly bill. To pay your bill via U. S. mail, enclose your payment and bill stub, add a stamp, and drop it in the mailbox. Misplaced your return envelope? Simply mail your payment and bill stub to the address above.

Pilots advised to contact tower starting in March Pilots advised to contact tower starting in March Editor's note: This story was updated February 24 to correct inaccurate information about radio frequencies. AOPA regrets the error. Testing of a remote air traffic control tower at Northern Colorado Regional Airport will enter a new phase by March 16, requiring pilots to pay particular attention to procedures. The Colorado Remote Tower Project control room. Photo courtesy of Northern Colorado Regional Airport. The FAA recently briefed participants in the program, which has been in the works since 2017, advising that the mobile ATC tower that will provide ATC services at the previously nontowered airport will be operational starting no later than March 16. The tower’s hours of operation will be 8 a. m. to 6 p. local time, handling traffic on 118. 4 MHz (121. 65 for Ground; the common traffic advisory frequency will be changed to 118. 4 MHz). A notam will be issued at least 72 hours prior to the start of ATC services. The local controllers in the trailer (Serco contractors) will handle the traffic, while others employed by Searidge Technologies of Ottawa, Ontario, will conduct “passive” operations from a remote facility. The plan is to eventually hand control to the remote operators, and make this airport a model for others that can be served by remote ATC. AOPA has supported and participated in the test and evaluation program, based on the potential for this technology to expand the number of nontowered airports served by the FAA Contract Tower Program. AOPA Senior Director of Airspace, Air Traffic, and Aviation Security Rune Duke reminded local pilots to pay particular attention to the regulation covering operations near an airport in Class E airspace that requires pilots to contact the operating control tower within four nautical miles of the airport at or below 2, 500 feet agl. Pilots should also check notams prior to flight. The Colorado Division of Aeronautics funded the $8. 8 million test program that will establish the second remote control tower location in the country, following Virginia’s Leesburg Municipal Airport. Remote towers are also online in Europe, and viewed as a cost-effective alternative to local staffing. Jim Moore Editor-Web Editor-Web Jim Moore joined AOPA in 2011 and is an instrument-rated private pilot, as well as a certificated remote pilot, who enjoys competition aerobatics and flying drones. Related Articles.


Summary What They Do Work Environment How to Become One Pay Job Outlook State & Area Data Similar Occupations More Info Summary Please enable javascript to play this video. Video transcript available at. Quick Facts: Air Traffic Controllers 2018 Median Pay $124, 540 per year $59. 87 per hour Typical Entry-Level Education Associate's degree Work Experience in a Related Occupation None On-the-job Training Long-term on-the-job training Number of Jobs, 2018 24, 300 Job Outlook, 2018-28 1% (Little or no change) Employment Change, 2018-28 300 What Air Traffic Controllers Do Air traffic controllers coordinate the movement of aircraft to maintain safe distances between them. Air traffic controllers work in control towers, approach control facilities, or route centers. Their work can be stressful because maximum concentration is required at all times. Night, weekend, and rotating shifts are common. How to Become an Air Traffic Controller There are several paths to becoming an air traffic controller. Candidates typically need an associate’s or a bachelor’s degree from the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative program. Other applicants must have 3 years of progressively responsible work experience, have completed 4 years of college, or have a combination of both. One must also be a U. S. citizen, submit to medical and background checks, and take exams and courses at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) academy. The median annual wage for air traffic controllers was $124, 540 in May 2018. Employment of air traffic controllers is projected to show little or no change from 2018 to 2028. Competition for air traffic controller jobs is expected to be very strong, with many people applying for a relatively small number of jobs. State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for air traffic controllers. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of air traffic controllers with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET Learn more about air traffic controllers by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations. About this section Air traffic controllers authorize flight path changes. Duties Air traffic controllers typically do the following: Monitor and direct the movement of aircraft on the ground and in the air Control all ground traffic at airport runways and taxiways Issue landing and takeoff instructions to pilots Transfer control of departing flights to other traffic control centers and accept control of arriving flights Inform pilots about weather, runway closures, and other critical information Alert airport response staff in the event of an aircraft emergency Air traffic controllers’ primary concern is safety, but they also must direct aircraft efficiently to minimize delays. They manage the flow of aircraft into and out of the airport airspace, guide pilots during takeoff and landing, and monitor aircraft as they travel through the skies. Air traffic controllers use radar, computers, or visual references to monitor and direct the movement of the aircraft in the skies and ground traffic at airports. Controllers usually manage multiple aircraft at the same time and must make quick decisions to ensure the safety of aircraft. For example, a controller might direct one aircraft on its landing approach while providing another aircraft with weather information. The following are examples of types of air traffic controllers: Tower controllers direct the movement of vehicles, including aircraft, on runways and taxiways. They check flight plans, give pilots clearance for takeoff or landing, and direct the movement of aircraft and other traffic on the runways and in other parts of the airport. Most work from control towers, observing the traffic they control. Tower controllers manage traffic from the airport to a radius of 3 to 30 miles out. Approach and departure controllers ensure that aircraft traveling within an airport’s airspace maintain minimum separation for safety. They give clearances to enter controlled airspace and hand off control of aircraft to en route controllers. Approach and departure controllers use radar equipment to monitor flight paths and work in buildings known as Terminal Radar Approach Control Centers (TRACONs). They also inform pilots about weather conditions and other critical notices. Terminal approach controllers assist the aircraft until it reaches the edge of the facility’s airspace, usually about 20 to 50 miles from the airport and up to about 17, 000 feet in the air. En route controllers monitor aircraft once they leave an airport’s airspace. They work at air route traffic control centers located throughout the country, which typically are not located at airports. Each center is assigned an airspace based on the geography and air traffic in the area in which it is located. As an airplane approaches and flies through a center’s airspace, en route controllers guide the airplane along its route. They may adjust the flight path of aircraft to avoid collisions and for safety in general. Route controllers direct the aircraft for the bulk of the flight before handing to terminal approach controllers. Some air traffic controllers work at the Air Traffic Control Systems Command Center, where they monitor traffic within the entire national airspace. When they identify a bottleneck, they provide instructions to other controllers, helping to prevent traffic jams. Their objective is to keep traffic levels manageable for the airports and for en route controllers. Work Environment About this section Air traffic controllers often work in semidark rooms. Air traffic controllers held about 24, 300 jobs in 2018. The largest employers of air traffic controllers were as follows: Federal government 92% Support activities for air transportation 5 Professional, scientific, and technical services 0 Most controllers work for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Air traffic controllers work in control towers, approach control facilities, or en route centers. Many tower and approach/departure controllers work near large airports. En route controllers work in secure office buildings located across the country, which typically are not located at airports. Approach and departure controllers often work in semidark rooms. The aircraft they control appear as points of light moving across their radar screens, and a well-lit room would make it difficult to see the screens properly. Air traffic controllers must react quickly and efficiently while maintaining maximum concentration. The mental stress of being responsible for the safety of aircraft and their passengers can be tiring. As a result, controllers retire earlier than most workers. Those with 20 years of experience are eligible to retire at age 50, while those with 25 years of service may retire earlier than that. Controllers are required to retire at age 56. Work Schedules Most air traffic controllers work full time, and some work additional hours. The FAA regulates the hours that an air traffic controller may work. Controllers may not work more than 10 straight hours during a shift and must have 9 hours’ rest before their next shift. Controllers may rotate shifts among day, evening, and night, because major control facilities operate continuously. Controllers also work weekend and holiday shifts. Less busy airports may have towers that do not operate on a 24-hour basis. Controllers at these airports may have standard work schedules. How to Become an Air Traffic Controller About this section Air traffic controllers must be able to coordinate the actions of multiple flights. There are several different paths to becoming an air traffic controller. A candidate must have either 3 years of progressively responsible work experience, a bachelor’s degree, a combination of postsecondary education and work experience totaling three years, or obtain a degree through an Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-approved Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) program. Additionally, to become an air traffic controller, candidates must be a U. citizen; pass a medical evaluation, including drug screening, and background checks; pass the FAA preemployment test, which includes a biographical assessment; pass the Air Traffic Controller Specialists Skills Assessment Battery (ATSA); and complete a training course at the FAA Academy (and start it before turning 31 years of age). The biographical assessment, also known as a biodata test, is a behavioral consistency exam that evaluates a candidate’s personality fitness to become an air traffic controller. For more information, see the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) page on biodata tests. Applicants who pass both the ATSA and the biographical assessment are eligible to enroll in the FAA Academy. Controllers also must pass a physical exam each year and a job performance exam twice per year. In addition, they must pass periodic drug screenings. Some learn their skills and become air traffic controllers while in the military. Education Candidates who want to become air traffic controllers typically need an associate’s or a bachelor’s degree from an AT-CTI program. Other candidates must have 3 years of progressively responsible work experience, have completed 4 years of college, or have a combination of both. The FAA sets guidelines for schools that offer the AT-CTI program. AT-CTI schools offer 2- or 4-year degrees that are designed to prepare students for a career in air traffic control. The curriculum is not standardized, but courses focus on subjects that are fundamental to aviation. Topics include aviation weather, airspace, clearances, reading charts, federal regulations, and related topics. Training Most newly hired air traffic controllers are trained at the FAA Academy, located in Oklahoma City, OK. The length of training varies with the applicant’s background. Applicants must be hired by their 31st birthday. After graduating from the Academy, trainees are assigned to an air traffic control facility as developmental controllers, until they complete all requirements for becoming a certified air traffic controller. Developmental controllers begin their careers by supplying pilots with basic flight data and airport information. They then advance to positions within the control room that have more responsibility. As the developmental controllers master various duties, they earn increases in pay and advance in their training. Those with previous controller experience may take less time to become fully certified. There are opportunities for a controller to switch from one position to another, provided that additional training is completed. For example, a controller may transfer from an en route position to an airport tower position with additional Academy training. Within both of these positions, controllers can transfer to jobs at different locations or advance to supervisory positions. Applicants may need to have up to 3 years of progressively responsible generalized work experience in any occupation, or a combination of work experience and college education. More work experience is necessary to substitute for less postsecondary education. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations All air traffic controllers must hold an Air Traffic Control Tower Operator Certificate or be appropriately qualified and supervised as stated in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 65. They must be at least 18 years old, fluent in English, and comply with all knowledge and skill requirements. Important Qualities Communication skills. Air traffic controllers must be able to give clear, concise instructions, listen carefully to pilots’ requests, and respond by speaking clearly in English. Concentration skills. Controllers must be able to concentrate in a room where multiple conversations occur at once. For example, in a large airport tower, several controllers may be speaking with several pilots at the same time. Decisionmaking skills. Controllers must make quick decisions. For example, when a pilot requests a change of altitude to avoid poor weather, the controller must respond quickly so that the plane can operate safely. Math skills. Controllers must be able to do arithmetic accurately and quickly. They often need to compute speeds, times, and distances, and they recommend heading and altitude changes. Organizational skills. Controllers must be able to coordinate the actions of multiple flights. Controllers need to be able to prioritize tasks, because they may be required to guide several pilots at the same time. Problem-solving skills. Controllers must be able to understand complex situations, such as the impact of changing weather patterns on a plane’s flight path. Controllers must be able to review important information and provide pilots with appropriate solutions. Pay About this section Air Traffic Controllers Median annual wages, May 2018 Air traffic controllers Air transportation workers Total, all occupations The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $68, 090, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $178, 650. In May 2018, the median annual wages for air traffic controllers in the top industries in which they worked were as follows: $129, 180 97, 690 80, 750 The salaries for development controllers increase as they complete successive levels of training. According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the salaries for more advanced controllers who have completed on-the-job training varies with the location of the facility, the complexity of the flight paths, and other factors. A full explanation of the pay ranges for air traffic controllers can be found on the FAA Aviation Careers Page. Controllers may rotate shifts among day, evening, and night, because major control facilities operate continuously. Controllers at these airports may have more normal work schedules. Job Outlook About this section Air Traffic Controllers Percent change in employment, projected 2018-28 Air transportation workers Total, all occupations Air traffic controllers Employment of air traffic controllers is projected to show little or no change from 2018 to 2028. Although air traffic is projected to increase in the next decade, the satellite-based Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is expected to allow individual controllers to handle more air traffic. As a result, the demand for additional air traffic controllers should be limited over the next 10 years. Job Prospects Competition for air traffic controller jobs is expected to be very strong, with many people applying for a relatively small number of jobs. Those with military experience as an air traffic controller may have an advantage. Most employment opportunities will result from the need to replace workers who are expected to retire or leave the occupation. Employment projections data for air traffic controllers, 2018-28 Occupational Title SOC Code Employment, 2018 Projected Employment, 2028 Change, 2018-28 Employment by Industry Percent Numeric SOURCE: U. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program Air traffic controllers 53-2021 24, 600 1 Get data State & Area Data About this section Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and area. Projections Central Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices. All state projections data are available at. Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. CareerOneStop CareerOneStop includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of air traffic controllers. Occupation Job Duties ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION 2018 MEDIAN PAY Airline and Commercial Pilots Airline and commercial pilots fly and navigate airplanes, helicopters, and other aircraft. See How to Become One $115, 670 Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers Police, fire, and ambulance dispatchers, also called public safety telecommunicators, answer emergency and nonemergency calls. High school diploma or equivalent $40, 660 Last Modified Date: Wednesday, December 11, 2019.

Air Traffic Control Specialists Airway Transportation Systems Specialists Aviation Safety Inspector Compilation of air traffic audio from pilot assists depicting the critical public safety function provided by air traffic controllers. Every minute, every hour, every day, there are men and women working to ensure the safety and efficiency of our national airspace system. This elite group of more than 14, 000 FAA air traffic control specialists provide a vital public service to guide pilots, their planes and 2. 7 million daily passengers from taxi to takeoff, through the air and back safely on the ground. Because of the serious nature of this work and zero margin for error, the training regimen and proficiencies needed to become an air traffic control specialist, are demanding. Initial selection does not guarantee placement into federal civilian service. Entry-level applicants must complete required training courses at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City and gain on-the-job experience before becoming certified professional controllers. Air traffic controllers in San Juan, Puerto Rico, describe their work and the satisfaction of being able to assist in the recovery of the island following recent hurricanes. Minimum Requirements Be a United States citizen Be age 30 or under (on the closing date of the application period) Pass a medical examination Pass a security investigation Pass the FAA air traffic pre-employment test Speak English clearly enough to be understood over communications equipment Have three years of progressively responsible work experience, or a Bachelor's degree, or a combination of post-secondary education and work experience that totals three years Be willing to relocate to an FAA facility based on agency staffing needs Two air traffic controller trainees share their perspectives after graduating from the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City. The FAA offers employment opportunities for individuals with previous air traffic control experience, as well as entry-level trainee air traffic control specialists, through separate job vacancy announcements posted for a limited time throughout the year. Get answers to your frequently asked questions about air traffic control specialist requirements. Learn more about the general Knowledge, Skills and Abilities ( KSAs) of a successful air traffic control specialist. Follow a flight across America and its interaction with various FAA air traffic control facilities. Get a behind the scenes tour of a FAA Tower/TRACON with air traffic controller Anni Luong and learn more about how she uses math on-the-job. Pay, Benefits, Hours The median annual wage for air traffic control specialists was $127, 805 in 2016. The salaries for entry-level air traffic control specialists increase as they complete each new training phase. The annual salary for more advanced controllers who have completed on-the-job training varies with the location of the facility, the complexity of the airspace, and other factors. Air traffic controller Kevin McCants covers the basics about air traffic control and the application of geometry and physics in his work. As a Federal employee, air traffic control specialists receive a benefits package that rivals, if not surpasses, those offered in the private sector, with a variety of insurance, retirement, leave and flexible spending options for employees and their families. Learn more about benefits. Most air traffic control specialists work full time, and some work additional hours. Larger air traffic control facilities operate continuously, and employees may rotate among day, evening, and night shifts, along with weekends and holidays. Smaller facilities have more standard dawn to dusk operating hours. We're currently recruiting for entry-level positions at locations nationwide. Learn more. The following five specialties encompass the duties of an Airway Transportation Systems Specialist (electronics technician): Environmental Technicians maintain and repair the following types of equipment: Lighted Navigational Aids Systems, Engine Generators (with or W/O Transfer Switches), Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems and Power Sources/Power Conditioning Systems. Radar Technicians maintain and repair the following types of equipment: Airport Surveillance Radar, Air Route Surveillance Radar, Air Traffic Control Beacon Indicator, Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Terminal Doppler Weather Radar. Navigational Aids Technicians maintain and repair the following types of equipment: Instrument Landing Systems, Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range ( VORs), Doppler Very High Frequency Omni Directional Range ( DVOR), Tactical Aircraft Control and Navigation ( TACAN), and Distance Measuring Equipment ( DMEs). Communications Technicians maintain and repair the following types of equipment: Motorola, ITT, or General Dynamics radios, Radio Communications Link Repeater, Low Density Radio Communications Link Repeater, Small Tower Voice Switch, Enhanced Terminal Voice Switch, Rapid Deployment Voice Switch, Digital Voice Recorder System, Digital Audio Legal Recorder. Automation Technicians maintain and repair the following types of equipment: Automated Radar Terminal System, Direct Access Radar Channel, En Route Automation Modernization. Aviation Safety Inspector ( ASI) FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors are involved in developing, administering, or enforcing regulations and standards concerning civil aviation safety. This includes the airworthiness of aircraft and aircraft systems; the competence of pilots, mechanics, and other airmen; and the safety aspects of aviation facilities, equipment and procedures. A broad knowledge of the aviation industry (including general principles of aviation safety and the regulations and policies affecting aviation) is applied. In addition, an extensive technical knowledge and skill in the operations, airworthiness (maintenance and avionics), or manufacture of aircraft and aircraft systems is needed. Join our Team Now Hiring: Safety Inspectors Application Helpful Hints Aviation Safety Organization ( AVS) Aviation Safety Inspector (1825 series) OPM Basic Qualifications and Classification Offices and Locations Flight Standards Service ( AFS) — operations, airworthiness maintenance, airworthiness avionics Aircraft Certification Service ( AIR) — manufacturing Our Business FAA regulates and oversees all aspects of our nation's civil aviation. FAA employees work in a variety of occupations across the nation to provide the safest, most efficient aviation technology and airspace in the world. More about our business.

The last decade has seen responsibility for funding legal services move further away from state provision towards commercial funding mechanisms. As a result we now have more complex methods of addressing the cost of legal services, including directly marketed services like ‘no win, no fee’ agreements. With access to legal aid diminishing in many areas of law, these services enable people who otherwise might not be able to, afford to make personal injury claims, fight unfair dismissal or seek compensation for medical negligence. For these reasons then, these agreements are to be welcomed. The Government has endorsed the ‘no win, no fee’ model and has recently introducing damages based agreements (DBA) – where a lawyer takes a percentage of any damages awarded to their customer – alongside CFAs. Both offer lawyers the means to make a fundamental promise to their customer: if you don’t win the case, you won’t have to pay. But the advent of ‘no win, no fee’ has not been without its problems. The ‘no win, no fee’ model has played its part in fostering a culture of ‘ambulance chasing’ and fraudulent claims, which has inadvertently driven up insurance premiums. The Government has been so concerned about this that it has begun to make moves to rein in the burgeoning personal injury market by banning referral fees. As noted above, there have been warnings from regulators about the marketing of the agreements and strong concerns that the phrase ‘no win, no fee’ is “potentially misleading”. 4 The Legal Ombudsman has begun to see cases where the fundamental promise which underpins the marketing of both CFAs and DBAs – that the consumer will not have to pay for losing cases – is being broken. Our cases show that people who have entered into ‘no win, no fee’ agreements have been hit with significant and unexpected costs when cases have failed. On occasions, we have also seen consumers who have won their case end up out of pocket. The six cases included here raise questions both about how the agreements are structured and how they are marketed and explained. We are not claiming that these sorts of problems are widespread. Only about 8% of the complaints we resolved last year related to CFAs. But the cases we have seen show that when things go wrong with these agreements, impact on the people involved is heavy. So we wanted to highlight these potential issues now and seek action to address them before they become prevalent within the industry. This is particularly important for ‘no win, no fee’ agreements as there are two areas of specific concern we wish to highlight: • Transfer of risk – there is a structural weakness in the nature of the agreements which allows some lawyers to pass the risk of unrecovered costs onto the consumer. • Unclear terms and conditions - the agreements are sometimes complex and there is evidence of some lawyers failing to make clear to consumers the financial risks that come with entering into a ‘no win, no fee’ agreement. Transfer of risk The financial risks of going to court are huge. Lawyers’ fees for both sides, insurance, court fees, disbursements (expenses incurred by a law firm on behalf of a client) and, sometimes, a success fee can be involved. Litigation lawyers have to find ways of making their services accessible and affordable for consumers, while ensuring all of these costs are paid for. Because of this, ‘no win, no fee’ agreements are attractive both to lawyers and consumers. For the consumer, the attractions are obvious: they can take their case to court with no upfront fees and at no apparent risk to their purse. For the lawyer, there is, in theory, greater risk: if the case loses, they are left responsible for the other side’s costs as well as their own. So long as lawyers are careful in their selection of cases, the downside of the occasional loss will be more than swallowed up by the success fees generated by the winning cases. But, if a lawyer is under financial pressure, has a run of bad luck, or, for whatever reason, has poorly judged his or her selection of cases, even a single ‘no win, no fee’ agreement gone wrong can threaten their business model. We have seen cases where, faced with these circumstances, lawyers are tempted to try and pass the risk onto a customer or to simply go back on the terms of their agreement to get out of a problem that they created. Miss A’s case study demonstrates this problem clearly. She was asked to pay almost £15, 000 to cover her firm’s mistakes – they had proceeded with her case despite knowing it had less than a 50% chance of success. And her case was unsuccessful. As a result the terms of agreement with the insurer were broken and it refused to pay out, leaving Miss A with the bill. Our investigation showed that the firm had made it quite clear to Miss A that she wouldn’t have to pay anything if she lost the case. We found that the firm had contradicted its fundamental promise to her – that she wouldn’t need to pay as she was using a ‘no win, no fee’ agreement. In this case, the firm failed to stick to its terms and conditions and in doing so provided a poor service. The Ombudsman’s investigation concluded the agreement had been mis-sold to Miss A, and, because of our involvement, the firm agreed with Miss A that it would honour its promise and pay the other side’s costs. Similarly, Ms B was asked to pay more than £30, 000 when her firm decided to stop her case - citing reasons that the firm had known about right from the start. Our investigation showed that the firm failed to take out an insurance policy on behalf of Ms B, despite telling her that they would do so, leaving her to pay the other side’s considerable costs as there was no safety net of insurance. The Ombudsman’s investigation concluded that the firm had sought to end the agreement due to its failure to gain insurance cover (and not for the reasons it said). We concluded that the firm should be required to waive the other side’s costs and pay Ms B £600 as a way of recognising the considerable anxiety the matter had caused her. Then there is Mrs C’s case. She was asked to pay the other side’s costs of £6, 000 when her firm withdrew from the case, saying that new information had changed the firm’s assessment of success. Our investigation found that although the ‘no win, no fee’ agreement allowed the firm to withdraw if the customer had concealed an important fact, the firm, when first taking on the case, had never asked her about previous accidents, even when it had the chance to do so. Our investigation concluded that it seemed likely that the firm’s assessment of its own risk had changed as the case progressed. The balance of evidence suggested that the firm used the new information as an excuse for withdrawing from a case with less than a 50% chance of success. In this case, we concluded that the firm had exploited a loophole in its terms and conditions to end the agreement and seek to ensure it faced no financial liability. We ordered the firm to pay the costs involved, together with a sum for the inconvenience caused. These cases raise an important question: what outside pressures are prompting firms to take on cases that have no or very little chance of succeeding, requiring them to resort to exploiting loopholes in the agreements? Market forces The ‘no win, no fee’ market has become increasingly aggressive, with many law firms competing for cases and sometimes prioritising sourcing a large number of customers over a careful selection process. In the case of personal injury claims (which account for almost 70% of the complaints the Ombudsman sees about CFAs) many service providers now use national advertising and marketing campaigns to generate leads. It may be that firms are forfeiting a robust vetting process in favour of a high risk approach that sees them taking on cases with a low chance of success. Other explanations may lie in the necessarily risky nature of litigation. Cases that may have looked like winners at the beginning can turn out to be turkeys by the end. This again cries out for lawyers to be more thorough in their preliminary investigations. A business model which consistently overvalues the chances of success can drive lawyers into unethical practice in order to avoid financial meltdown. It is for these reasons we have made referrals to regulators; to assist them in looking for patterns and risks so they can inform future action to prevent market distortions and consumer detriment. Unclear terms and conditions Understanding the fine print The manner in which such agreements are marketed and explained is also causing problems. The headline marketing mechanic is the phrase ‘no win, no fee’, which directly implies that the consumer will not have to pay unless the claim is successful. However, that is not necessarily true: there are circumstances where the consumer will have to pay for losing cases. This raises real questions about whether the phrase ‘no win, no fee’ should continue to be used. The agreements themselves are not simple to understand. And if CFA agreements are complex documents, the new DBAs are even more impenetrable to all but the most sophisticated and literate consumer. In our view, this places a strong obligation on lawyers to explain the way the agreements operate to their clients - and a particular obligation to highlight the potential risks. Alongside this report we have published an overview of the terms and conditions found in a ‘model’ agreement – we have used this to highlight areas where, from our experience in resolving complaints, problems can emerge if they are not explained properly. In many of the cases we see, there is little evidence that this sort of explanation of complex terms and conditions has taken place. This is hardly surprising; with many firms sourcing volume customers via advertising or using claims management companies, there may be little incentive or opportunity to ensure that the complex nature of the agreement is fully explained. Lawyers must explain the circumstances in which a losing case can incur a cost for a consumer and the limitations of the ‘no win, no fee’ promise must be properly set out before a customer signs up. And it isn’t just at the start that problems from unclear terms and conditions can arise. We have seen cases where people have been hit with surprise costs after winning their case. Usually, this entails confusion around the amount payable towards a success fee, but can also involve payment of disbursements and the other side’s costs. Our interactive contract shows how these problems can arise. Recent changes to CFA contracts, introduced as part of Lord Justice Jackson’s reforms to seek to better control costs, mean that the majority of success fees and after the event (ATE) insurance premiums are now no longer recoverable from a defendant and are instead payable by the customer. This means the customer will pay costs from any damages they recover. However, the Ombudsman’s experience of the cases we see is that many customers are not aware of the detail of agreements and what this means for costs in winning cases under ‘no win, no fee’ agreements. Take Mr D’s experience. His relief at winning his personal injury claim was short lived after the firm informed him that almost a third of the damages awarded would be taken as a success fee and to cover disbursements. Upon investigation it became clear that the firm had not explained its costs under the contract, and particularly how its success fee would be recovered. Mr D believed his costs would be recovered from the defendant. The rules have only just changed regarding recovery of costs. So many people will still be in the dark about what is payable under the terms of their agreement unless this is explained to them clearly by their lawyer, including in any written contracts or agreements. Good practice The Law Society has produced a model conditional fee agreement for use in personal injury and clinical negligence cases, which sets out clearly what is covered by the agreement, what is not covered, how payment works if a customer wins, what expenses and disbursements are payable and what a customer pays if they lose. The model agreement also includes additional information about success fees and the calculation of basic charges. As well as calling for lawyers to give their work due care then, lawyers can help themselves by drawing up clear, easy to follow contracts. The Law Society’s template seems like a great example of how to do this and is available from their website. This is particularly important for customers considering whether or not to invest their time and energy into pursuing a claim. If the success fees and additional charges leave them with very little of their damages they may decide it’s not worth the effort. Claims can take years to resolve and involve much anguish for the people involved – they deserve to know what is ultimately going to be in it for them. ‘No win, no fee’ in practice Having said all of this, Mr E’s case shows that even where a contract has been well written, it might not stop a firm from behaving contrary to the agreement. Mr E entered into a ‘no win, no fee’ agreement with a firm, which then decided some way into the case that his chance of success was slim and stopped doing any further work on the case. However, Mr E continued with the claim, represented himself in court - and won. When the firm then learned of Mr E’s success it pursued him for costs in excess of £24, 000. In essence, the firm wanted a success fee despite leaving their customer to fend for himself. In this case the firm had drawn up a ‘no win, no fee’ agreement using a template very similar to the Law Society’s model agreement, and it had been clear about its costs in the event of the case winning or losing. The paperwork was clear that if the firm ended the agreement and Mr E won his case anyway, the firm would be able to claim disbursements, nothing more. Our investigation found that the firm was being completely unreasonable pursuing Mr E for additional costs. The Ombudsman decided that the firm was not entitled to claim anything other than disbursements and that they should pay Mr E £200 for the distress and inconvenience it had caused him. Mr E accepted our decision. In our final example, Mr F instructed a firm on a ‘no win, no fee’ basis to represent him in a medical negligence claim. The firm began the work and commissioned medical reports. However, eighteen months after the case began, the firm ceased trading, leaving Mr F to pay a number of costs associated with his case. Following an investigation we found that the firm was wrong to leave Mr F to pick up its costs; the agreement made no reference to him having to do so. When our investigation concluded, we suggested that Mr F liaise with the firm’s indemnity insurers to see if he could recover the £10, 000 he had paid out. Though we are able to help people who find themselves in this kind of situation, dealing with lawyers that behave in this way - and contrary to their code of conduct - may require a robust regulatory response to ensure they do not make a habit out of it. We have reported some of the cases in this report to the relevant regulatory bodies and trust that they will now consider how to respond in due course. Conclusion Legal Services Board research suggests that the increase in ‘no win, no fee’ agreements, “has brought the profession closer to the consumer” since people find lawyers offering these services less formal and more accessible in terms of cost. 5 Additionally, this research has shown that consumers find ‘no win, no fee’ firms more approachable than ‘traditional’ practices. So we are likely to see continued use of these agreements – and more of the risks we have outlined here. We want to see legal service providers and regulators taking heed of this report and proposing responses to bring greater consistency in standards across the industry. This could be achieved by standardising due care on the part of firms, perhaps by enshrining it into regulatory codes of conduct, while universalising CFA and DBA contracts, to make sure the ones used set out terms and conditions clearly. We will continue to watch closely to see if changes to ‘no win, no fee’ agreements under the Jackson reforms have an impact on numbers of complaints that come to the Ombudsman. The aim of these changes is to make legal services more accessible while managing costs – if this aim is achieved it should bode well for consumers. Finally, we would like to see service providers handling complaints professionally, and any issues raised by customers taken seriously. The fact that some of the cases in this report were resolved informally suggests that the firms could have dealt with the complaints themselves had they been willing to try. Additional resources for lawyers Handling complaints competently can only enhance a lawyer’s reputation. To this end, we now offer the benefit of our experience in resolving complaints through our complaint handling courses. Available to all legal professionals, they are continuous professional development (CPD) accredited by the Solicitors Regulation Authority, and help attendees to clarify the process and principles followed by the Ombudsman when it investigates complaints. They also look at implications for best practice and internal complaint handling procedures. Additionally, we have made a package available on our website to help lawyers direct customers to us if they can’t resolve a dispute internally.




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